A. Common Interaction Patterns in an ESL classroom
T - Ss: Teacher talking to the whole class, such as in presenting a text, explaining grammar, giving instructions for an activity.
T - S: Questions and answers (dialogues) between the teacher and a student, such as in demonstration, checking comprehension.
T - S - S: Teacher initiated dialogues with more than one student, such as in role-playing demonstration and warm-up activities.
S - T: Student initiated conversation between a student and the teacher, such as in asking questions about a rule or an assignment.
S - Ss: One invidiual student talking to the whole class, such as in telling a story, reciting a poem.
Ss/Ss: Students working in small groups, such as practicing conversation, role-playing.
S - S: Two students work in pairs such as practicing a dialogue, carrying out an information gap activity.
SS: Students doing their work individually such as reading, completing an exercise.
B. Different Seating Arrangments in Class (from Harmer (1998) How to Teach English)